Abstract
The object of this paper is to determine some coupled fixed point theorems for nonlinear contractive mappings in the framework of a metric space endowed with partial order. We also prove the uniqueness of a coupled fixed point for such mappings in this setup.
MSC: 47H10, 54H25, 34B15.
Keywords:
coupled fixed point; contractive mapping; partially ordered set; metric space1 Introduction
Fixed point theory is a very useful tool in solving a variety of problems in control theory, economic theory, nonlinear analysis and global analysis. The Banach contraction principle [1] is the most famous, simplest and one of the most versatile elementary results in fixed point theory. A huge amount of literature is witnessed on applications, generalizations and extensions of this principle carried out by several authors in different directions, e.g., by weakening the hypothesis, using different setups, considering different mappings.
Many authors obtained important fixed point theorems, e.g., Abbas et al.[2], Agarwal et al.[3,4], Bhaskar and Lakshmikantham [5], Choudhury and Kundu [6], Choudhury and Maity [7], Ćirić et al.[8], Luong and Thuan [9], Nieto and López [10,11], Ran and Reurings [12] and Samet [13] presented some new results for contractions in partially ordered metric spaces. In [14], Ilić and Rakočević determined some common fixed point theorems by considering the maps on cone metric spaces. Recently, Haghi et al.[15] have shown that some coincidence point and common fixed point generalizations in fixed point theory are not real generalizations. For more detail on fixed point theory and related concepts, we refer to [1634] and the references therein.
In [5], Bhaskar and Lakshmikantham introduced the notions of mixed monotone property and coupled fixed point for the contractive mapping , where X is a partially ordered metric space, and proved some coupled fixed point theorems for a mixed monotone operator. As an application of the coupled fixed point theorems, they determined the existence and uniqueness of the solution of a periodic boundary value problem. Recently, Lakshmikantham and Ćirić [35] have proved coupled coincidence and coupled common fixed point theorems for nonlinear contractive mappings in partially ordered complete metric spaces. Most recently, Samet et al.[36] have defined αψcontractive and αadmissible mapping and proved fixed point theorems for such mappings in complete metric spaces.
The aim of this paper is to determine some coupled fixed point theorems for generalized contractive mappings in the framework of partially ordered metric spaces.
2 Definitions and preliminary results
We start with the definition of a mixed monotone property and a coupled fixed point and state the related results.
Definition 2.1 ([5])
Let be a partially ordered set and be a mapping. Then a map F is said to have the mixed monotone property if is monotone nondecreasing in x and is monotone nonincreasing in y; that is, for any ,
and
Definition 2.2 ([5])
An element is said to be a coupled fixed point of the mapping if
Theorem 2.3 ([5])
Letbe a partially ordered set and suppose there is a metricdonXsuch thatis a complete metric space. Letbe a continuous mapping having the mixed monotone property onX. Assume that there exists awith
for alland. If there existsuch that
Theorem 2.4 ([5])
Letbe a partially ordered set and suppose there is a metricdonXsuch thatis a complete metric space. Assume thatXhas the following property:
(i) if a nondecreasing sequence, thenfor alln;
(ii) if a nonincreasing sequence, thenfor alln.
Letbe a mapping having the mixed monotone property onX. Assume that there exists awith
for alland. If there existsuch that
3 Main results
In this section, we establish some coupled fixed point results by considering maps on metric spaces endowed with partial order.
Denote by Ψ the family of nondecreasing functions such that for all , where is the nth iterate of ψ satisfying (i) , (ii) for all and (iii) for all .
Lemma 3.1Ifis nondecreasing and right continuous, thenasfor allif and only iffor all.
Definition 3.2 Let be a partially ordered metric space and be a mapping. Then a map F is said to be contractive if there exist two functions and such that
Definition 3.3 Let and be two mappings. Then F is said to be admissible if
Theorem 3.4Letbe a partially ordered set and suppose there is a metricdonXsuch thatis a complete metric space. Letbe a mapping having the mixed monotone property ofX. Suppose that there existandsuch that for, the following holds:
(iii) Fis continuous.
If there existsuch thatand, thenFhas a coupled fixed point; that is, there existsuch that
Proof Let be such that and and (say) and (say). Let be such that and . Continuing this process, we can construct two sequences and in X as follows:
for all . We will use the mathematical induction. Let . Since and and as and , we have and . Thus, (3.2) hold for . Now suppose that (3.2) hold for some fixed n, . Then, since and and by the mixed monotone property of F, we have
and
From above, we conclude that
Thus, by the mathematical induction, we conclude that (3.2) hold for all . If for some n we have , then and ; that is, F has a coupled fixed point. Now, we assumed that for all . Since F is admissible, we have
Thus, by the mathematical induction, we have
and similarly,
for all . Using (3.1) and (3.3), we obtain
Similarly, we have
Adding (3.5) and (3.6), we get
Repeating the above process, we get
for all . For there exists such that
Let be such that . Then, by using the triangle inequality, we have
and
and hence and are Cauchy sequences in . Since is a complete metric space and hence and are convergent in . Then there exist such that
Since F is continuous and and , taking limit , we get
and
that is, and and hence F has a coupled fixed point. □
In the next theorem, we omit the continuity hypothesis of F.
Theorem 3.5Letbe a partially ordered set and suppose there is a metricdonXsuch thatis a complete metric space. Letbe a mapping such thatFhas the mixed monotone property. Assume that there existand a mappingsuch that
(i) conditions (i) and (ii) of Theorem 3.4 hold,
(ii) ifandare sequences inXsuch that
If there existsuch thatand, then there existsuch thatand; that is, Fhas a coupled fixed point inX.
Proof Proceeding along the same lines as in the proof of Theorem 3.4, we know that and are Cauchy sequences in the complete metric space . Then there exist such that
On the other hand, from (3.3) and hypothesis (ii), we obtain
and similarly,
for all . Using the triangle inequality, (3.8) and the property of for all , we get
Similarly, using (3.9), we obtain
Taking the limit as in the above two inequalities, we get
Hence, and . Thus, F has a coupled fixed point. □
In the following theorem, we will prove the uniqueness of the coupled fixed point. If is a partially ordered set, then we endow the product with the following partial order relation:
Theorem 3.6In addition to the hypothesis of Theorem 3.4, suppose that for every, in, there existsinsuch that
and also assume thatis comparable toand. ThenFhas a unique coupled fixed point.
Proof From Theorem 3.4, the set of coupled fixed points is nonempty. Suppose and are coupled fixed points of the mappings ; that is, , and , . By assumption, there exists in such that is comparable to and . Put and and choose such that and . Thus, we can define two sequences and as
Since is comparable to , it is easy to show that and . Thus, and for all . Since for every , there exists such that
Since F is admissible, so from (3.10), we have
Thus,
Therefore, by the mathematical induction, we obtain
for all n∈ and similarly, . From (3.10) and (3.11), we get
Similarly, we have
Adding (3.12) and (3.13), we get
Thus,
for each . Letting in (3.14) and using Lemma 3.1, we get
This implies
Similarly, one can show that
From (3.15) and (3.16), we conclude that and . Hence, F has a unique coupled fixed point. □
Example 3.7 (Linear case)
Let and be a standard metric. Define a mapping by for all . Consider a mapping be such that
Since holds for all . Therefore, we have
It follows that
Thus (3.1) holds for for all , and we also see that all the hypotheses of Theorem 3.4 are fulfilled. Then there exists a coupled fixed point of F. In this case, is a coupled fixed point of F.
Example 3.8 (Nonlinear case)
Let and be a standard metric. Define a mapping by for all . Consider a mapping be such that
Then we get
Thus,
Therefore (3.1) holds for for all , and also the hypothesis of Theorem 3.4 is fulfilled. Then there exists a coupled fixed point of F. In this case, is a coupled fixed point of F.
4 Concluding remark
The author of [33] recently established some coupled fixed point theorems in partially ordered metric spaces shortly by using some usual corresponding fixed point theorems on the metric space . Note that if the righthand side of the αψcontractive type condition (3.1) is replaced by , then a very short proof similar to what followed in [33] can be provided for a coupled fixed point theorem of Theorem 3.4 type by making just use of the results in [36]. However, since the righthand side of (3.1) is not of the form , specially for nonlinear functions ψ, then it is not possible to apply the method [33]. In this connection, notice that Example 3.7 works for both when the righthand side is either or as in (3.1), but Example 3.8 works only for (3.1). Hence, our results are more interesting and different from the existing results of [33] and [36].
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors’ contributions
The authors contributed equally and significantly in writing this paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Acknowledgements
The work of the second author was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah. He acknowledges with thanks DSR technical and financial support.
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